1.2 Revenue
  The Group earns revenue from the sale of goods and the provision of services through its vast proprietary distribution channels and platforms. Owing to the wide array of products and services provided, the Group interacts with a broad cross-section of South African society. The Group generates revenue based on various contractual arrangements with its customers, the major sources of which are listed below. These sources aggregate revenue by nature, extent, timing and risk.
 

 

  Revenue source Performance obligations included Recognition Measurement and terms of sale Critical estimates and judgements
  Prepaid airtime, data and related revenue a. Prepaid airtime and data a. Prepaid airtime and data a. Prepaid airtime and data a. Prepaid airtime and data
   

The sale of prepaid airtime and data represents the majority of Group revenue. Prepaid airtime and data is either physical PIN, virtual PIN or PINless. Physical PIN inventory is sold in bulk to customers (who themselves are generally distributors) as and when they place orders with Blue Label. Customers will either collect the physical stock at Blue Label depots or it will be delivered via courier to them. Virtual PIN inventory is delivered as a stock file via secure file transfer protocol to a customer's point of sales device, secure network location or sales terminal. This file contains the same information delivered to Blue Label by the mobile networks, being PIN numbers, product codes, serial numbers and expiry dates

PINless sales relate to airtime and data sold that is not in the form of either a virtual PINor physical voucher and accordingly no inventories exist. Airtime or data is requested by an end-user via one of the Group's customer's integrated systems, upon Blue Label will automatically notify the applicable network to increase the relevant end-user balance. Blue Label does not take control of PINless stock at any point.

Physical and virtual PIN inventory sales are recognised on transfer of control of stock to the customer. Control is transferred at the point of delivery of physical stock or stock files to the customer. In general, the Group does not provide warranties, nor the right of return on inventory that has been delivered as it cannot reasonably determine whether any PINs have already been activated. The Group considers itself as the principal in the sale of PIN inventory sales, and thus recognises the full face value (transaction price) of the voucher sold net of any discounts in revenue. PINless sales are recognised on the successful completion of the airtime or data reload transaction, which culminates in an increase of the end-user's balance. It is at this point that the Group has completed its performance obligation to connect the parties through its integrated system and facilitate the transaction. The Group considers itself as the agent in the sale of PINless airtime and data, and thus recognises only the commission on the sale as revenue.


b. Commissions, bonuses and incentives

Commissions, bonuses and incentives related to the sales of prepaid airtime are recognised on a systematic basis (generally monthly) once the Group has established its right to receive payment based on the achievement of the sales, activations or recharges criteria for the period measured.

Physical and virtual PIN inventory sales are measured at the face value (transaction price) of the voucher sold net of any discounts. Payment arrangements vary per customer and can range from payment before delivery to terms of up to 60 days. PINless sales are based on the commission percentage earned on the face value (transaction price) of the airtime and data sold. Payment terms for PINless sales do not generally exceed three days, with settlement usually taking place the next business day.


b. Commissions, bonuses and incentives

Commissions, bonuses and incentives are measured based on the contractual value or percentage commission earned in accordance with agreements between the Group and the relevant cellular network. Payment terms do not exceed 30 days.

The Group has considered whether it acts in the capacity of an agent or principal in the sale of physical and virtual PIN inventory. Among other considerations, the Group maintains control of the stock prior to sale and bears all risks related to it. The Group has concluded that, in respect of these sales, it acts as principal. In relation to PINless sales, the Group has concluded that it acts in the capacity of an agent as its primary responsibility is the facilitation of the reload transaction rather than the handling and distribution of an inventory item.


b. Commissions, bonuses and incentives

No significant judgements or estimates.

    b. Commissions, bonuses and incentives

Commissions, bonuses and incentives related to the sales of prepaid airtime and data are earned by the Group based on reward structures agreed with the cellular network providers.


 


 


 

  Postpaid airtime, data and related revenue a. Postpaid airtime and data a. Postpaid airtime and data a. Postpaid airtime and data a. Postpaid airtime and data
   

Postpaid revenue is different in nature, timing and risk to prepaid airtime and accordingly is managed as a separate source.

Postpaid airtime is generally sold in terms of hybrid postpaid arrangements with customers. Hybrid arrangements provide the customer with a fixed amount of airtime which, when exhausted, will result in the conversion of the customer to prepaid. Both postpaid and prepaid revenue generated in terms of this delivery model is included in this aggregation.

The Group's performance obligation on a hybrid contract is to make available an active line for the month and provide the agreed airtime value for the customer to use on that line.

Revenue earned on postpaid and hybrid contracts is recognised monthly when invoiced to the customer in arrears. The Group's performance obligation is the provision of a line with airtime supplied over the duration of the contract, and accordingly revenue is recognised over time. Sales of prepaid airtime to postpaid customers is recognised in the same manner as the sale of prepaid airtime to prepaid customers described above.


b. Commissions, bonuses and incentives

Commissions, bonuses and incentives are measured based on the contractual value or percentage commission earned in accordance with agreements between the Group and the relevant cellular network. Payment terms do not exceed
30 days.

Revenue earned on postpaid and hybrid contracts is measured at the face value (transaction price) of the fixed airtime provided, net of any discounts. Payment terms are generally 30 days from invoice. Prepaid airtime sold to postpaid customers is measured in the same manner described above for sales to prepaid customers.


b. Commissions, bonuses and incentives

Commissions, bonuses and incentives are measured based on the contractual value or percentage commission earned in accordance with agreements between the Group and the relevant cellular network. Payment terms do not exceed 30 days.

The Group acts in the capacity of principal in relation to postpaid and hybrid contracts as the Group takes the full inventory risk, sets the price for these contracts to the end-users and is the primary obligor.


b. Commissions, bonuses and incentives

No significant judgements or estimates.

    b. Commissions, bonuses and incentives

Commissions, bonuses and incentives related to these arrangements, including the sale of prepaid airtime and data to this customer base, are earned by the Group in accordance with reward structures agreed with the cellular network providers.


 


 


 

  Prepaid and postpaid SIM cards a. SIM cards and preloaded airtime

Physical SIM cards are either sold to customers independently or with preloaded airtime through the Group's wholesale and retail distribution channels. The sale of a SIM card with preloaded airtime is considered one performance obligation by the Group and accounted for entirely within this aggregation.


b . Activation bonuses and ongoing revenue

Activation bonuses are earned from the cellular networks on the successful activation of a SIM card. Ongoing commissions are earned on any subsequent airtime recharges by the customer utilising the SIM card.

a. SIM cards and preloaded airtime

Revenue earned on the sale of the physical SIM card starter pack inventory, as well as preloaded airtime, is recognised when a SIM card is initially sold to the customer.


b . Activation bonuses and ongoing revenue

Activation bonuses received from the networks are recognised when the SIM card is activated on the relevant mobile network. Activation criteria, as well as the point of activation, is determined by the mobile networks. Ongoing revenue and other incentives are recognised once the associated contractual criteria have been met.

a. SIM cards and preloaded airtime

Revenue on the sale of the physical SIM card starter pack inventory and any preloaded airtime is measured at the individual selling price of the inventory and preloaded airtime, net of any discounts. Where the SIM card starter pack inventory is sold on extended credit terms (greater than 12 months), the revenue recognised is reduced by the financing component, which is subsequently recognised over the projected term at the effective interest rate. The payment terms for SIM card starter pack inventory sales sold on normal payment terms are between 30 and 90 days. Extended terms vary between three and 48 months.


b. Activation bonuses and ongoing revenue

Activation bonuses and ongoing commissions are measured at the contractual amounts receivable. The payment terms for activation bonuses and ongoing commissions are between 30 and 90 days.

a. SIM cards and preloaded airtime

Critical estimates include the estimation of the anticipated repayment term and discount rate for SIM card inventory sold on extended credit terms.

The Group uses the South African Reserve Bank prime lending rate as a reference to determine the rate used in assessing the significant financing component of these sales. The Group acts in the capacity of a principal on the sale of SIM card inventory.


b. Activation bonuses and ongoing revenue

The Group recognises the variable consideration relating to ongoing revenue as and when it is received because it is only at this point that it is highly probable that a significant reversal in revenue for that contract will not occur in the future. Ongoing revenue is fully constrained at the individual contract level due to the high variability in behaviour of the individual customers, including the period over which prepaid customers remain on the same SIM card (this can range from one day to a number of years) and the spending patterns of individual customers, which is also highly variable. In addition, because the terms of the ongoing revenue structure with the telecommunication companies are regularly up for negotiation, the Group is not able to predict the likelihood or magnitude of a revenue reversal.

  Services Major sources of services revenue include location-based services, SMS transaction services, value-added services in the form of media and content supply to customers, call centre and data transaction services, technology services and payment provision services. Revenue earned from services is recognised in the accounting period in which they are rendered. Where services revenue is recognised over time, the completion of the specific transaction is assessed on the basis of the actual service provided as a proportion of the total service to be provided. Due to the nature of the services rendered by the Group, most are short term in duration (less than one month), and seldom, if ever, impact more than one accounting period. Revenue earned on transaction linked services is measured at the effective unit selling price of the service provided at the point of provision. If the service is not directly transaction linked, or provided over a longer period of time, the proportion of the selling price relating to the actual services provided compared to the total services to be provided is recognised on a monthly basis in arrears. Payment terms are between one day and 30 days. The Group applies its judgement in the recognition of services revenue as either principal or agent. This will depend on the nature and contractual arrangements of the service provided. The Group considers who controls the service prior to it being provided, who is responsible for the performance of the service and who sets the price for the service provided. Due to the short-term nature of the services provided by the Group, no significant judgements or estimates are required to be made regarding the timing or amount of revenue recognised.
  Electricity commissions The Group earns commissions on the facilitation of prepaid electricity sold to customers on behalf of utility suppliers. Electricity commissions earned are recognised on the sale of a voucher to the customer. The Group cannot accept returned vouchers. Vouchers expire 12 months after issue; however, the number of expired vouchers is not significant and thus does not materially affect the quantum of commissions earned. Electricity commissions earned are measured at the contractually agreed commission percentage per rand of electricity sold. Payment terms are generally 30 to 60 days. The Group acts in the capacity of an agent in relation to electricity commissions. The Group has applied the same factors as those considered for services revenue in making this determination.
  Handsets, tablets and other devices This category represents revenue earned on the sale of handsets, tablets, accessories and other devices to customers through the Group's wholesale and retail distribution channels. Revenue from the sale of these goods is recognised at a point in time when control of the goods transfers to the customer, which is generally on acceptance of the goods by the customer. Revenue on the sale of goods is measured at the effective selling price of the items sold after subtracting discounts and rebates granted to customers on volume purchases and early settlement where applicable. Revenue is measured at the consideration received in terms of the arrangement with the customer. Handsets are generally sold on extended credit terms of between 24 and 36 months, whereby the revenue recognised is reduced by a financing component, which is subsequently recognised over the projected term at the effective interest rate. Payment terms for other goods are generally between 30 and 60 days.

Subsidies on handset sales are considered an incremental cost of obtaining a contract with a customer that is expected to be recovered and as such are recognised as an asset within advances to customers (refer to note 3.3.3) and amortised over the period of the contract.
The Group has assessed that the right of return that customers have in relation to sold goods does not have a significant impact on the revenue recognised. This is due to the fact that the majority of returns are related to products returned under warranty where back to back warranty arrangements are in place with the product manufacturer and thus there is a minimal impact on revenue recognised.

Effective from June 2022, a change in the contractual arrangement between the Group and Cell C has resulted in the Group taking over the stock risk for post paid contract devices and control over the devices until ultimate sale to subscribers. Consequently these subscribers are considered customers of the Group for post paid device sales and the related consideration received, net of discounts, is recorded within this category.
  Other revenue Other revenue earned by the Group on products and services which are incidental or complementary to those described above include the installation of prepaid electric meters, electricity audit projects undertaken on electricity sales for municipalities, rentals earned on point of sale and other devices used to facilitate the above major revenue streams, the sale of gaming vouchers, the sale of tickets for transportation and to sporting events, and the facilitation of bill payments. Revenue is recognised either at a point in time or over time as control is transferred to the customer in the arrangement. Revenue is measured at the consideration received in terms of the arrangement with the customer. Payment terms are generally between 30 and
60 days.
No significant judgements or estimates.
  Subscription income share This category represents the Group's share of Cell C's income, under the subscription income sharing arrangement (refer to note 4.2(e)), from particular postpaid subscribers that sign up, extend or upgrade their subscriptions with Cell C after 1 November 2020. To the extent the Group has facilitated the procurement of handsets to enable Cell C to fulfil its obligation of providing such handsets to their customers, rather than to the customers of the Group, the handset sales associated with this arrangement are also represented within this category. The Group's share of subscription income is recognised as revenue as and when Cell C earns the income from the particular postpaid subscribers. The Group's share of subscription income is recognised as revenue based on the net cash flows which the Group is entitled to from Cell C that relate to the particular postpaid subscribers. The net cash flows are determined after deducting the operating costs of Cell C, borne by the Group, that are associated with these subscribers, as and when they are incurred by Cell C. To the extent the Group has facilitated the procurement of handsets to enable Cell C to fulfil its obligation of providing such handsets to these subscribers, the Group's costs are also deducted in measuring the Group's share of subscription income and handset revenue.

Subsidies on handset sales are considered an incremental cost of obtaining a contract with a customer that is expected to be recovered and as such are recognised as an asset within advances to customers (refer to note 3.3.3) and amortised over the period of the contract.
Since it is Cell C that transfers goods or services to the subscribers, and not the Group, the subscribers are not considered to be customers of the Group. Similarly, Cell C is not a customer of the Group as the Group does not transfer goods or services to Cell C. Accordingly, the Group's share of subscription income does not constitute revenue from contracts with customers as defined in IFRS 15 – Revenue from Contracts with Customers. It is considered to be income arising in the course of the Group's ordinary activities, and is therefore presented as revenue.

Effective from June 2022, a change in the contractual arrangement between the Group and Cell C has resulted in the Group taking over the stock risk and control over post paid contract devices until ultimate sale to subscribers. Consequently these subscribers are considered customers of the Group for post paid device sales and the related consideration received net of costs are no longer recognised within this category.
  Finance revenue Interest income earned on financing arrangements where the core business of the Group is the provision of financing to its customers in its capacity as a principal financier. Finance revenue is recognised on the accrual basis over the term of the financing provided. Finance revenue is measured at the effective interest rate implicit in the financing arrangement.

No significant judgements or estimates.

      Total Africa Distribution Solutions
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  Revenue from contracts with customers   17 654 965 16 552 919 17 380 512 16 299 260 274 453 253 659
  Prepaid airtime, data and related revenue   13 009 793 14 556 809 13 009 793 14 556 809
  Postpaid airtime, data and related revenue   155 568 106 285 155 568 106 285
  Prepaid and postpaid SIM cards   460 280 504 111 460 280 504 111
  Services   441 683 394 253 167 230 140 594 274 453 253 659
  Electricity commission   282 903 336 197 282 903 336 197
  Handsets, tablets and other devices   2 770 279 274 447 2 770 279 274 447
  Other revenue*   534 459 380 817 534 459 380 817
  Subscription income share   940 940 842 362 940 940 842 362
  Revenue   18 595 905 17 395 281 18 321 452 17 141 622 274 453 253 659
  Finance revenue   322 358 410 981 322 358 410 981
  Total revenue   18 918 263 17 806 262 18 643 810 17 552 603 274 453 253 659
  * Other revenue predominantly includes audit projects on municipalities and commissions earned on the sale of gaming vouchers, bus ticketing and the facilitation of bill payments.