2. GROUP COMPOSITION
 

Basis of consolidation

(a) Subsidiaries

Subsidiaries are all entities (including structured entities) over which the Group has control. The Group controls an entity when the Group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. Subsidiaries are fully consolidated from the date on which control is transferred to the Group. They are deconsolidated from the date that control ceases.

The Group applies the acquisition method to account for business combinations. The consideration transferred for the acquisition of a subsidiary is the fair value of the assets transferred, the liabilities incurred to the former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by the Group. The consideration transferred includes the fair value of any asset or liability resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date. The Group recognises any non-controlling interest in the acquiree on an acquisition by acquisition basis, either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the recognised amounts of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets. If the business combination is achieved in stages, the acquisition date carrying value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured to fair value at the acquisition date. Any gains or losses arising from such remeasurement are recognised in profit or loss.

Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred.

Any contingent consideration to be transferred is recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Subsequent changes to the fair value of the contingent consideration that is deemed to be an asset or liability are recognised in profit or loss in other income or other expenses.

The excess of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree and the acquisition date fair value of any previous equity interest in the acquiree over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired are recorded as goodwill. If the total consideration transferred, non-controlling interest recognised and previously held interest measured are less than the fair value of the net assets of the subsidiary acquired in the case of a bargain purchase, the difference is recognised directly in the income statement.

Inter-company transactions, balances and unrealised gains on transactions between Group companies are eliminated. Unrealised losses are also eliminated. When necessary, amounts reported by subsidiaries have been adjusted to conform with the Group’s accounting policies.

(b) Changes in ownership interests in subsidiaries without change of control

Transactions with non-controlling interests that do not result in loss of control are accounted for as equity transactions, i.e. transactions with the owners in their capacity as owners. The difference between fair value of any consideration paid and the relevant share acquired of the carrying value of net assets of the subsidiary is recorded in equity. Gains or losses on disposals to non-controlling interests are also recorded in equity.

When entering into a written put on a non-controlling interest, the initial liability is recognised at the present value of the expected settlement price with a corresponding adjustment to equity. Thereafter if the non-controlling interest continues to be recognised, the Group takes subsequent changes in the expected changes in the liability as an adjustment in profit or loss. The Group believes this is an appropriate accounting policy, because there is no clear guidance in IFRS as to whether IFRS 9 or 10 should be applied to the presentation of the remeasurement of a liability.

(c) Disposal of subsidiaries

When the Group ceases to have control, any retained interest in the entity is remeasured to its fair value at the date when control is lost, with the change in carrying amount recognised in profit or loss. The fair value is the initial carrying amount for the purposes of subsequently accounting for the retained interest as an associate, joint venture or financial asset. In addition, any amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income in respect of that entity are accounted for as if the Group had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities. This may mean that amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss.

(d) Associates and joint ventures

Investments in associates and joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. Under the equity method, the investment is initially recognised at cost, and the carrying amount is increased or decreased to recognise the investor’s share of the profit or loss of the investee after the date of acquisition. The Group’s investment in associates and joint ventures includes goodwill identified on acquisition. Loans made to associates and joint ventures that are equity in nature are treated as part of the cost of the investment made.

Associates are all entities over which the Group has significant influence but not control, generally accompanying a shareholding of between 20% and 50% of the voting rights.

Investments in joint arrangements are classified as either joint operations or joint ventures depending on the contractual rights and obligations of each investor. The Group has assessed the nature of its joint arrangements and determined them to be joint ventures.

The Group’s share of post-acquisition profit or loss is recognised in the income statement, and its share of post-acquisition movements in other comprehensive income is recognised in other comprehensive income with a corresponding adjustment to the carrying amount of the investment. The carrying amount of the investment is also adjusted for the Group’s share of post-acquisition movements in other net assets.

The Group excludes equity-settled share-based payment charges from its share in profits or losses from associates and joint ventures. As a result, it does not recognise the corresponding attributable share of the related share-based payment reserve within equity.

The Group determines at each reporting date if there are any indicators which would require the Group to test whether the investment in the associate or joint venture is impaired. If this is the case, the Group calculates the amount of impairment as the difference between the recoverable amount of the associate or joint venture and its carrying value and recognises the amount adjacent to share of profit/(loss) from associates in the income statement.

Dilution gains and losses arising in investments in associates and joint ventures are recognised in the income statement.

If the ownership interest in an associate is reduced but significant influence is retained, only a proportionate share of the amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income is reclassified to profit or loss where appropriate.

When the Group’s share of losses in an associate or joint venture equals or exceeds its interests in the associate or joint venture (which includes any long-term interests that, in substance, form part of the Group’s net investment in the associate or joint venture), the Group does not recognise further losses, unless it has incurred obligations or made payments on behalf of the associate or joint venture. Where an impairment is recognised in respect of an associate or joint venture, the Group’s share of equity-accounted results reflect amortisation based on an adjusted impaired fair value.

Critical accounting judgements and assumptions

(a) Valuation of intangible assets acquired as part of a business combination

The fair values of all identifiable intangible assets acquired as part of a business combination are determined using recognised valuation techniques. Such techniques often rely on forecasts of future cash flows and the use of appropriate discount rates that reflect the risk factors associated with the cash flows. These valuations are based on information at the time of the acquisition and the expectations and assumptions that have been deemed reasonable by the Group’s management. The risk exists that the underlying assumptions or events associated with such assets will not occur as projected. For these reasons, among others, the actual cash flows may vary from forecasts of future cash flows.

These valuations are based on information at the time of the acquisition and the expectations and assumptions that have been deemed reasonable by the Group’s management. The risk exists that the underlying assumptions or events associated with such assets will not occur as projected. For these reasons, among others, the actual cash flows may vary from forecasts of future cash flows.

(b) Classification of significant joint arrangements

The Group exercises judgement in determining the classification of its joint arrangements.

(c) Assessment of investment in associates and joint ventures for impairment

The Group tests annually whether its investment in associates and joint ventures has suffered any impairment, in accordance with the accounting policy. The recoverable amounts of the investment in associates and joint ventures have been determined based on value-in-use calculations. These calculations require the use of estimates.