10.4 Other accounting policies

Foreign currencies

(a) Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group's entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (the functional currency). The Group financial statements are presented in South African rand (R), which is the functional and presentation currency of the parent company.

(b) Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at year-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the income statement in operating profit.

(c) Group companies

The results and financial position of all the Group entities (none of which has the currency of a hyperinflationary economy) that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency are translated into the presentation currency as follows:

  • assets and liabilities are translated at the closing rate as at statement of financial position date;
  • income and expenses are translated at average exchange rates (unless this average is not a reasonable approximation of the cumulative effect of the rates prevailing on the transaction dates, in which case income and expenses are translated at the dates of the transactions); and
  • all resulting exchange differences are recognised in other comprehensive income.

Goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on the acquisition of a foreign entity are treated as the foreign entity's assets and liabilities and are translated at the closing rate.

Dividend tax

Dividend tax is provided for at 20% of the amount of any dividend paid, subject to certain exemptions. The dividend tax is a tax borne by the beneficial owner of the dividend and will be withheld by either the issuer of the dividend or by regulated intermediaries.

Dividend distribution

Dividend distribution to the Company's shareholders is recognised as a liability in the Group's financial statements in the period in which they are approved by the shareholders.

Distributions of non-cash assets received from subsidiary companies are recognised as a dividend at the fair value of the non-cash assets received.